Responsive and Adaptive Web Design are two different approaches to Website Design that try to accomplish similar goals: Mobile websites with a Great User Experience.
Adaptive Web Design is another term for progressive enhancement of a web site.
Adaptive Web Design also encompasses a range of other strategies which can be combined with responsive web design.
The term was first coined by Aaron Gustafson in his book “Adaptive Web Design: Crafting Rich Experiences with Progressive Enhancement” in May 2011.
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from Web Design Ledger http://webdesignledger.com/adaptive-web-design-explained/